If you don’t know why it must be a God.
Why did the Greeks and ancient Egyptians create gods?
Ancient Egyptian Gods
The people in Ancient Egypt created several gods and goddesses to better understand and explain the surrounding environment. They personified the phenomena of nature, such as the sun, thunder, fire, water and the passing of time. The myths and legends featuring deities were created for just about each element of nature.
- Aker – A god of the earth and the horizon
- Ammit – goddess who devoured condemned souls
- Amenhotep son of Hapu – A scribe and architect in the court of Amenhotep III, later deified for his wisdom
- Am-heh – A dangerous underworld god
- Amun – A creator god, patron deity of the city of Thebes, and the preeminent deity in Egypt during the New Kingdom
- Amunet – Female counterpart of Amun and a member of the Ogdoad
- Anat – A war and fertility goddess, originally from Syria, who entered Egyptian religion in the Middle Kingdom
- Anhur – A god of war and hunting
- Anput – A goddess of the dead and mummification
- Anti – Falcon god, worshipped in Middle Egypt, who appears in myth as a ferryman for greater gods
- Anubis – god of embalming and protector of the dead
- Anuket – A goddess of Egypt’s southern frontier regions, particularly the lower cataracts of the Nile
- Apedemak – A warlike lion god from Nubia who appears in some Egyptian-built temples in Lower Nubia
- Apep – A serpent deity who personified malevolent chaos and was said to fight Ra in the underworld every night
- Apis – A live bull worshipped as a god at Memphis and seen as a manifestation of Ptah
- Arensnuphis – A Nubian deity who appears in Egyptian temples in Lower Nubia in the Greco-Roman era
- Ash – A god of the Libyan Desert and oases west of Egypt
- Astarte – A warrior goddess from Syria and Canaan who entered Egyptian religion in the New Kingdom
- Aten – Sun disk deity who became the focus of the monolatrous or monotheistic Atenist belief system in the reign of Akhenaten
- Atum – A creator god and solar deity, first god of the Ennead
- Baal – Sky and storm god from Syria and Canaan, worshipped in Egypt during the New Kingdom
- Ba’alat Gebal – A Caananite goddess, patroness of the city of Byblos, adopted into Egyptian religion
- Babi – A baboon god characterized by sexuality and aggression
- Banebdjedet – A ram god, patron of the city of Mendes
- Ba-Pef – A little-known underworld deity
- Bast – Goddess represented as a cat or lioness, patroness of the city of Bubastis, linked with protection from evil
- Bat – Cow goddess from early in Egyptian history, eventually absorbed by Hathor
- Bennu – A solar and creator deity, depicted as a bird
- Bes – Apotropaic god, represented as a dwarf, particularly important in protecting children and women in childbirth
- Buchis – A live bull god worshipped in the region around Thebes and a manifestation of Montu
- Dedun – A Nubian god, said to provide the Egyptians with incense and other resources that came from Nubia
- Geb – An earth god and member of the Ennead
- Ha – A god of the Libyan Desert and oases west of Egypt
- Hapi – Personification of the Nile flood
- Hathor – One of the most important goddesses, linked with the sky, the sun, sexuality and motherhood, music and dance, foreign lands and goods, and the afterlife. One of many forms of the Eye of Ra.
- Hatmehit – Fish goddess worshipped at Mendes
- Hedetet – A minor scorpion goddess
- Heh – Personification of infinity and a member of the Ogdoad
- Heka – Personification of magic
- Heket – Frog goddess said to protect women in childbirth
- Heryshaf – Ram god worshipped at Herakleopolis Magna
- Hesat – A maternal cow goddess
- Horus – A major god, usually shown as a falcon or as a human child, linked with the sky, the sun, kingship, protection, and healing. Often said to be the son of Osiris and Isis.
- Hu – Personification of the authority of the spoken word
- Iah – A moon god
- Iat – A goddess of milk and nursing
- Ihy – A child deity born to Horus and Hathor, representing the music and joy produced by the sistrum
- Imentet – An afterlife goddess closely linked with Isis and Hathor
- Imhotep – Architect and vizier to Djoser, eventually deified as a healer god
- Ishtar – The East Semitic version of Astarte, occasionally mentioned in Egyptian texts
- Isis – Wife of Osiris and mother of Horus, linked with funerary rites, motherhood, protection, and magic. She became a major deity in Greek and Roman religion.
- Iusaaset – A female counterpart to Atum
- Kek – The God of Chaos and Darkness, as well as being the concept of primordial darkness. Kek’s female form is known as Kauket.
- Khepri – A solar creator god, often treated as the morning form of Ra and represented by a scarab beetle
- Kherty – A netherworld god, usually depicted as a ram
- Khnum – A ram god, the patron deity of Elephantine, who was said to control the Nile flood and give life to gods and humans
- Khonsu – A moon god, son of Amun and Mut
- Maahes – A lion god, son of Bastet
- Maat – goddess who personified truth, justice, and order
- Mafdet – A predatory goddess said to destroy dangerous creatures
- Mandulis – A Lower Nubian solar deity who appeared in some Egyptian temples
- Mehit – A lioness goddess, consort of Anhur
- Menhit – A lioness goddess
- Mehen – A serpent god who protects the barque of Ra as it travels through the underworld
- Mehet-Weret – A celestial cow goddess
- Meretseger – A cobra goddess who oversaw the Theban Necropolis
- Meskhenet – A goddess who presided over childbirth
- Min – A god of virility, as well as the cities of Akhmim and Qift and the Eastern Desert beyond them
- Mnevis – A live bull god worshipped at Heliopolis as a manifestation of Ra
- Montu – A god of war and the sun, worshipped at Thebes
- Mut – Consort of Amun, worshipped at Thebes
- Nebethetepet – A female counterpart to Atum
- Nefertum – god of the lotus blossom from which the sun god rose at the beginning of time. Son of Ptah and Sekhmet.
- Nehebu-Kau – A protective serpent god
- Nehmetawy – A minor goddess, the consort of Nehebu-Kau or Thoth
- Neith – A creator and hunter goddess, patron of the city of Sais in Lower Egypt
- Nekhbet – A vulture goddess, the tutelary deity of Upper Egypt
- Neper – A god of grain
- Nephthys – A member of the Ennead, the consort of Set, who mourned Osiris alongside Isis
- Nu – Personification of the formless, watery disorder from which the world emerged at creation and a member of the Ogdoad
- Nut – A sky goddess, a member of the Ennead
- Osiris – god of death and resurrection who rules the underworld and enlivens vegetation, the sun god, and deceased souls
- Pakhet – A lioness goddess mainly worshipped in the area around Beni Hasan
- Ptah – A creator deity and god of craftsmen, the patron god of Memphis
- Qetesh – A goddess of sexuality and sacred ecstasy from Syria and Canaan, adopted into Egyptian religion in the New Kingdom
- Ra – the foremost Egyptian sun god, involved in creation and the afterlife. Mythological ruler of the gods, father of every Egyptian king, and the patron god of Heliopolis.
- Raet-Tawy – A female counterpart to Ra
- Renenutet – An agricultural goddess
- Reshep – A Syrian war god adopted into Egyptian religion in the New Kingdom
- Renpet – goddess who personified the year
- Satet – A goddess of Egypt’s southern frontier regions
- Seker – god of the Memphite Necropolis and of the afterlife in general
- Sekhmet – A lioness goddess, both destructive and violent and capable of warding off disease. The consort of Ptah and one of many forms of the Eye of Ra.
- Serapis – A Greco-Egyptian god from the Ptolemaic Period who fused traits of Osiris and Apis with those of several Greek gods. Husband of Isis who, like her, was adopted into Greek and Roman religion outside Egypt.
- Serket – A scorpion goddess, invoked for healing and protection
- Seshat – goddess of writing and record-keeping, depicted as a scribe
- Set – An ambivalent god, characterized by violence, chaos, and strength, connected with the desert. Mythological murderer of Osiris and enemy of Horus, but also a supporter of the king.
- Shai – Personification of fate
- Shed – A god believed to save people from danger and misfortune
- Shesmetet – A lioness goddess
- Shezmu – A god of wine and oil presses who also slaughters condemned souls
- Shu – embodiment of wind or air, a member of the Ennead
- Sia – Personification of perception
- Sobek – Crocodile god, worshipped in the Faiyum and at Kom Ombo
- Sopdu – A god of the sky and of Egypt’s eastern border regions
- Sopdet – Deification of the star Sirius
- Ta-Bitjet – A minor scorpion goddess
- Tatenen – Personification of the first mound of earth to emerge from chaos in ancient Egyptian creation myths
- Taweret – Hippopotamus goddess, protector of women in childbirth
- Tefnut – Goddess of moisture and a member of the Ennead
- Thoth – A moon god, and a god of writing and scribes, and patron deity of Hermopolis
- Tutu – An apotropaic god from the Greco-Roman era
- Unut – A goddess represented as a snake or a hare, worshipped in the region of Hermopolis
- Wadjet – A cobra goddess, the tutelary deity of Lower Egypt
- Wadj-wer – Personification of the Mediterranean sea or lakes of the Nile Delta
- Weneg – A son of Ra who maintains cosmic order
- Wepwawet – A jackal god, the patron deity of Asyut, connected with warfare and the afterlife
- Werethekau – A goddess who protected the king
- Wosret – A minor goddess of Thebes
- Yam – A Syrian god of the sea who appears in some Egyptian texts
Ancient Egyptian groups of deities
- The Ennead – An extended family of nine deities produced by Atum during the creation of the world. The Ennead usually consisted of Atum, his children Shu and Tefnut, their children Geb and Nut, and their children Osiris, Isis, Set, and Nephthys.
- The four sons of Horus – Four gods who protected the mummified body, particularly the internal organs in canopic jars.
- The Ogdoad – A set of eight gods who personified the chaos that existed before creation. The Ogdoad commonly consisted of Amun, Amunet, Nu, Naunet, Heh, Hauhet, Kuk, and Kauket.
- The Souls of Pe and Nekhen – A set of gods personifying the predynastic rulers of Upper and Lower Egypt.
Origins of Greek religion
Greek mythology as we know it has its roots in Ancient Mesopotamian culture and religion of people from the island of Crete. These two cultures placed a large emphasis on the nature’s spirits and magical powers of certain objects. Over time, their stories and legends evolved and formed a foundation for the religion of the Ancient Greeks. Today, myths are considered as mere stories with little religious value, but for the Greeks, they were the centerpiece of their society – in terms of religion, education and entertainment.
The people in Ancient Greece created several gods and goddesses to better understand and explain the surrounding environment. They personified the phenomena of nature, such as the sun, thunder, fire, water and the passing of time. The myths and legends featuring deities were created for just about each element of nature. For example, earthquakes were believed to be the result of Poseidon’s fury, and the changes of seasons occurred when Persephone went down to the underworld for half a year. The twelve hours in a day were represented by the daughters of Apollo.
Since the Greeks didn’t have a written source like The Bible, they learned about gods and legends mouth-to-mouth, myths traveling all over the country. The myths that we know today were a big part of their religion and served as the origins of gods and humanity, as well as explanations of historic events and sources of entertainment. The retellings of myths varied from region to region, which is another reason for the country’s diverse religion – myths and legends mixing with one another. Each city devoted itself to a particular god or gods and the ideas were very varied. For example, the city of Delphi was considered to be the sacred site dedicated to Apollo, the god of sun and time.
Relationships With Mortals
Greek gods resembled humans and possessed human emotions. However, the beliefs of the Greeks placed an emphasis on the weakness of humans, contrasting it with the divine power of the gods over humanity. They believed that gods intervened when necessary, creating therefore the idea of Fate and Destiny. They controlled every aspect of their lives. The myths and legends therefore featured gods created for every element of human condition. For example, the myth about Apollo passing to his son Asklepios the knowledge of medicine for the benefit of the people is an illustration of the origin of medical talent. Another example is Prometheus’ penance – an illustration of gods intervening and punishing those who commit misdemeanors.
People prayed to a particular deity when they needed something. Women prayed to Hestia for a happy household while fishermen and sailors asked Poseidon for safe travels.
Heroes And Villains
Heroes are an important part of Greek religion and mythology – they were children of gods and humans and bridged the gap between the two races. Heroes like Hercules and Theseus are examples of tales of perseverance and ideal character. However, the myths also included strange and scary creatures who most likely seem familiar from popular culture – centaurs, cyclops, the Minotaur, etc. Since every deity and creature represented and ruled over an aspect of nature or humanity, these creatures played an important part in Greek mythology. For instance, centaurs are a representation of chaos and the absence of reason – half-man half-horse is quite a chaotic phenomenon. Cyclops and Medusas and the Minotaur are just a few examples of creatures representing the obstacles heroes had to overcome. The myths about battles between heroes and these villains were a significant source of entertainment and cautionary tales and legends for the Ancient Greeks.
Why did the Greeks have so many gods?
The Greeks created gods like Athena, Ares, Hades, Poseidon and Hera to explain the world around them. They relied on the gods to explain natural phenomenon, provide authority to the ruling class and entertain the masses. Most city-states had at least one particular god they honored. They would celebrate and worship that god through the building of temples, participation in festivals, sports competitions and sacrifices.
Who did the ancient Greeks worship and why?
There are 12 Greek gods located on Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece. The main leader of the Greek gods was Zeus, known for yielding the thunderbolt. Different gods controlled different aspects of life such as love, war, the hunt, harvest and afterlife in the underworld. One of the natural phenomenon that the Greeks used the gods to explain was creation. Another was the story of the great flood.
The Greek gods resembled humans in many of their characteristics. They expressed themselves through the human emotions of anger, lust, jealousy, love, passion and compassion. The main difference between gods and humans were that the gods were immortal and powerful. The stories of the gods were passed on orally through family members and storytellers and are so entertaining, they are still used in popular culture.
List of Greek Gods and Goddesses – A
- Achelois – One of the moon goddesses.
- Achelous – The patron god of the Achelous river.
- Aeolus – (a.k.a. Aeolos, Aiolos, Aiolus, Eolus) God of air and the winds.
- Aether – (a.k.a. Aither, Akmon, Ether) God of light and the atmosphere.
- Alastor – God of family feuds.
- Alcyone – One of the seven daughters of Atlas and Pleione.
- Alectrona – Early Greek goddess of the sun.
- Amphitrite – (a.k.a. Salacia) The wife of Poseidon and a Nereid.
- Antheia – Goddess of gardens, flowers, swamps, and marshes.
- Aphaea – (a.k.a. Aphaia) A Greek goddess who was worshipped exclusively at a single sanctuary on the island of Aegina in the Saronic Gulf.
- Aphrodite – (a.k.a. Anadyomene, Turan, Venus) Goddess of love and beauty.
- Apollo – (a.k.a. Apollon, Apulu, Phoebus) God of the sun, music, healing, and herding.
- Ares – (a.k.a. Enyalius, Mars, Aries) God of chaotic war.
- Aristaeus – (a.k.a. Aristaios) Patron god of animal husbandry, bee-keeping, and fruit trees.
- Artemis – (a.k.a. Agrotora, Amarynthia, Cynthia, Kourotrophos, Locheia, Orthia, Phoebe, Potnia Theron) Goddess of the moon, hunting, and nursing.
- Asclepius – (a.k.a. Aesculapius, Asklepios) God of health and medicine.
- Astraea – The Star Maiden – a goddess of justice, included in Virgo and Libra mythologies.
- Até – Goddess of mischief.
- Athena – (a.k.a. Asana, Athene, Minerva, Menerva) Goddess of wisdom, poetry, art, and the strategic side of war.
- Atlas – The Primordial Titan who carried the weight of the heavens on his back.
- Atropos – (a.k.a. Aisa, Morta) One of The Fates – She cut the thread of life and chose the manner of a persons death.
- Attis – The (minor) god of rebirth.
List of Greek Gods and Goddesses – B
- Bia – The goddess of force.
- Boreas – (a.k.a. Aquilo, Aquilon) The North Wind. One of the Anemoi (wind gods).
- Brizo – Protector of Mariners.
List of Greek Gods and Goddesses – C
- Caerus – (a.k.a. Kairos, Occasio, Tempus) The (minor) god of luck and opportunity.
- Calliope – One of the Muses. Represented epic poetry.
- Calypso – (a.k.a. Kalypso) The sea nymph who held Odysseus prisoner for seven years.
- Castor – (a.k.a. Castore, Kastor) One of the twins who represent Gemini.
- Celaeno – The name of a wife of Poseidon.
- Cerus – The wild bull tamed by Persephone, made into the Taurus constellation.
- Ceto – (a.k.a. Keto) a sea monster goddess who was also the mother of other sea monsters.
- Chaos – (a.k.a. Khaos) The nothingness that all else sprung from.
- Charon – (a.k.a. Charun) The Ferryman of Hades. He had to be paid to help one cross the river Styx.
- Chronos – (a.k.a. Chronus, Khronos) God of time.
- Circe – (a.k.a. Kirke) A goddess who transformed her enemies into beasts.
- Clio – One of the Muses. She represented History.
- Clotho – (a.k.a. Nona) One of the Fates – Spun the thread of life from her distaff onto her spindle.
- Crios – The crab who protected the sea nymphs, made into the Cancer constellation.
- Cronus – (a.k.a. Cronos, Kronos, Saturn) God of agriculture, father of the Titans.
- Cybele – (a.k.a. Agdistis, Magna Mater, Meter, Meter Oreie) Goddess of caverns, mountains, nature and wild animals.
List of Greek Gods and Goddesses – D
- Demeter – (a.k.a. Ceres, Demetra, Tvath) Goddess of the harvest.
- Dinlas – Guardian of the ancient city of Lamark, where wounded heroes could heal after battle.
- Dionysus – (a.k.a. Bacchus, Dionysos, Liber) God of wine and pleasure.
- Doris – A Sea Nymph, mother of the Nereids.
List of Greek Gods and Goddesses – E
- Eileithyia – (a.k.a. Eileithyiai, Eilithia, Eilythia, Eleuthia, Ilithia, Ilithyia, Lucina) Goddess of childbirth.
- Eireisone – The deity who embodied the sacred ceremonial olive branch.
- Electra – (a.k.a. Atlantis) One of the seven Pleiades.
- Elpis – (a.k.a. Spes) The spirit of Hope.
- Enyo – (a.k.a. Bellona) A (minor) goddess of war, connected to Eris.
- Eos – (a.k.a. Aurora, Eosphorus, Mater Matuta, Thesan) Goddess of the Dawn.
- Erato – One of the Muses – represents Lyrics/Love Poetry.
- Erebus – (a.k.a. Erebos) God of darkness.
- Eris – (a.k.a. Discordia) Goddess of strife, connected to Enyo.
- Eros – (a.k.a. Amor, Cupid, Eleutherios) God of love, procreation and sexual desire.
- Eurus – (a.k.a. Euros, Vulturnus) The East Wind – One of the Anemoi (wind gods).
- Euterpe – One of the Muses – represents Music/Lyrics/Poetry.
List of Greek Gods and Goddesses – G
- Gaia – (a.k.a. Celu, Gaea, Terra) Goddess of the Earth, also known as Mother Earth.
- Glaucus – (a.k.a. Glacus, Glaukos) A fisherman turned immortal, turned Argonaut, turned a god of the sea.
List of Greek Gods and Goddesses – H
- Hades – (a.k.a. Aita, Dis Pater, Haidou, Orcus, Plouton, Pluto) God of the Dead, King of the Underworld.
- Harmonia – (a.k.a. Concordia) Goddess of Harmony and Concord.
- Hebe – (a.k.a. Juventas) Goddess of youth.
- Hecate – (a.k.a. Hekat, Hekate, Trivia) Goddess of magic, witchcraft, ghosts, and the undead.
- Helios – (a.k.a. Sol) God of the Sun.
- Hemera – (a.k.a. Amar, Dies, Hemere) Goddess of daylight.
- Hephaestus – (a.k.a. Hephaistos, Vulcan, Sethlans, Mulciber) God of fire and blacksmithing who created weapons for the gods.
- Hera – (a.k.a. Juno, Uni) Goddess of goddesses, women, and marriage and wife of Zeus.
- Heracles – (a.k.a. Herakles, Hercules, Hercle) An immortal hero of many Greek legends, the strongest man on Earth.
- Hermes – (a.k.a. Pyschopompus, Mercury, Turms) God of commerce and travel, and messenger of the gods.
- Hesperus – (a.k.a. Hesperos, Vesper) The Evening Star.
- Hestia – (a.k.a. Vesta) Greek goddess of the home and fertility. One of the Hesperides.
- Hygea – (a.k.a. Hygieia, Salus) Goddess of cleanliness and hygeine.
- Hymenaios – (a.k.a. Hymenaeus, Hymen) God of weddings.
- Hypnos – (a.k.a. Somnus) God of sleep.
List of Greek Gods and Goddesses – I-L
- Iris – Goddess of rainbows.
- Khione – The goddess of snow and daughter of the North Wind (Boreas).
- Kotys – (a.k.a. Cotys, Cottyto, Cottytus) A Dionysian goddess whose celebrations were wild and liscivious.
- Kratos – A god of strength and power.
- Lacheses – (a.k.a. Decima) One of the Fates. Measured the thread of life with her rod.
List of Greek Gods and Goddesses – M
- Maia – (a.k.a. Mya, Fauna, Maia Maiestas, Bono Dea) One of the seven Pleiades, Goddess of fields.
- Mania – (a.k.a. Mania, Manea) Goddess of insanity and the dead.
- Melpomene – One of the Muses – represented Tragedy.
- Merope – One of the seven Pleiades, married to king Sisyphos.
- Metis – Titan goddess of wisdom.
- Momus – (a.k.a. Momos) God of satire, writers, and poets.
- Morpheus – God of dreams and sleep.
List of Greek Gods and Goddesses – N-O
- Nemesis – (a.k.a. Rhamnousia, Invidia) Goddess of retribution (vengeance).
- Nereus – (a.k.a. Phorcys, Phorkys) Titan God who Fathered the Nereids. God of the Sea before Poseidon.
- Nike – (a.k.a. Victoria, Nice) Goddess of victory.
- Notus – (a.k.a. Auster) The South Wind. One of the Anemoi (wind gods).
- Nyx – (a.k.a. Nox) Goddess of night.
- Oceanus – Titan god of the ocean.
List of Greek Gods and Goddesses – P
- Pallas – A giant who was one of the ancient Titan gods of war.
- Pan – (a.k.a. Faunus, Inuus) God of woods, fields, and flocks. Also a Satyr.
- Peitha – (a.k.a. Peitho, Suadela) Goddess of persuasion.
- Persephone – (a.k.a. Persephassa, Persipina, Persipnei, Persephatta, Proserpina, Kore, Kora, Libera) Goddess of the Spring who lives off-season in the Underworld.
- Pheme – (a.k.a. Fama) Goddess of fame and gossip.
- Phosphorus – (a.k.a. Phosphor, Lucifer) The Morning Star.
- Plutus – God of wealth.
- Pollux – (a.k.a. Polydeuces) One of the twins who represent Gemini.
- Polyhymnia – One of the Muses – represents sacred poetry and geometry.
- Pontus – (a.k.a. Pontos) Ancient god of the deep sea.
- Poseidon – (a.k.a. Neptune, Nethuns, Neptunus) God of the sea and earthquakes.
- Priapus – (a.k.a. Priapus, Mutinus, Mutunus) A (minor) god of gardens and fertility, best known for having an enormous penis.
- Pricus – The immortal father of sea-goats, made into the Capricorn constellation.
- Proteus – An early sea god before Poseidon.
List of Greek Gods and Goddesses – R-S
- Rhea – (a.k.a. Cybele) Goddess of nature.
- Selene – (a.k.a. Luna) Goddess of the Moon and the ‘mother’ of vampires.
- Sterope – (a.k.a. Asterope) One of the seven Pleiades, who bore a child of Ares.
- Styx – A Naiad who was the first to aid Zeus in the Titan war. (Not to be confused with the river Styx).
List of Greek Gods and Goddesses – T
- Tartarus – (a.k.a. Tartaros, Tartarizo) God of the depths of the Underworld – a great storm pit – and the father of Typhon.
- Taygete – (a.k.a. Taygeti, Taigeti) One of the seven Pleiades, a mountain nymph.
- Terpsichore – One of the Muses – represented Dancing.
- Thalia – One of the Muses – represented Comedy.
- Thanatos – (a.k.a. Mors) God of death.
- Themis – Ancient goddess of divine order, law, and custom.
- Thetis – Leader of the Nereids, a shapeshifter, and a prophet.
- Triton – Trumpeter of the sea and messenger of the deep.
- Tyche – (a.k.a. Fortuna, Nortia) Goddess of fortune and prosperity.
- Typhon – (a.k.a. Typhaon, Typhoeus, Typhus) God of monsters, storms, and volcanoes. Challenged Zeus for control of Mount Olympus.
List of Greek Gods and Goddesses – U-Z
- Urania – One of the Muses – represented Astronomy and Astrology.
- Uranus – (a.k.a. Ouranos, Caelus) God of the sky and the heavens. Father of the Titans.
- Zelus – The god of zeal, rivalry, and jealousy.
- Zephyrus – (a.k.a. Zephyros, Favonius, Zephyr) The West Wind. One of the Anemoi (wind gods).
- Zeus – (a.k.a. Dias, Jupiter, Tinia, Jove, Jovis Pater) Leader of the Olympic gods, and god of lightning, thunder, and the heavens.